Got up early and hiked the hills near the hotel with my old GA Travis Byrd which was fun and well, very hot. Had a humming bird buzz our heads at one point which was pretty cool. We were definitely in the desert which is neat since I live in Kentucky.
On to the notes:
As we get older we have a greater amount of marbling of fat in our muscles and lower quality (and loss) of muscle mass in general. Aerobic training is not great for increasing muscle quality and quantity. Each year muscle and bone dysfunctions cost the US $300 million dollars. Resistance training is the best for long term health in this area. Exercise is better than just nutrition in this area but the two working together is key.
Muscle mass loss in older adults is multifactorial (more than one reason to cause it):
Loss of muscle units as we get older
As we lose more and more muscle mass it begins to show itself in gait issues and eventually becomes bad enough that people are put in homes due to lack of strength.
Creatine supplementation increases creatine reserves in muscle tissue. In meta analyses this helps upper body strength, but not as much in the lower body and nets on average 1kg of lean mass (2.2lbs. of lean mass). So creatine helps increase muscle mass in older adults. It does cause fluid retention, but that is good since the cell swelling causes satellite cell to increase and to regenerate muscle. This doesn’t directly activate fractional synthesis rates, but it turns other pathways on that might lead to growth like IGF-1 production.
Overall protein timing seems to be irrelevant or nowhere near as important as just general amount of protein in and getting in some around training (also with creatine).
Overall your biggest muscle groups tend to atrophy the fastest (glutes, lats). Creatine post work out seems to work better with younger folks, but around exercise seems to be the key with older folks.
Osteoclasts break down bones
Osteoblasts build up bones
There was a study that showed creatine supplementation over 12 weeks was associated with an increase in bone mineral density. Most of the time bone studies require 6 months to see a significant change in density. This creatine supplementation needs resistance training to help with increase bone mineral density
Creatine is safe in anyone that doesn’t have liver of kidney disease. Looks like the dosage in adults is .1g/kg of body mass each day (this seems real high, I wouldn’t follow this dear reader). There might be an interaction with caffeine and creatine to supplement them separately. Tends to washout after no more supplementation in 12 weeks or as little as 30 days.
Caffeine and genetics – genetics are a major factor on how caffeine is tolerated and the ergogenic effects that it has. When working with teams or individuals always track the individual response to caffeine supplementation. The gene that has been shown to effect this is CYP142, slow metabolizers of caffeine seem to have greater issues with it than those that are fast metabolizers.
The area of science looking at how your genetics effect your dietary intake is nutrigenomics. This even seems to have effects on things like food behaviors, preferences, mean metabolism. However, there are a lot of charlatans in this area.
There is a gene for how your body puts down collagen and this influences how your body can respond and repair damage to your joints. All food info (RDAs, etc.) is not based on individual genetics, keep this in mind.
Protein timing every 4 hours doesn’t seem to have that great of an effect compared to longer or shorter windows for anabolism.
These genes can also effect how you can use iron or calcium to help enhance your performance in certain sports (iron for mice on treadmills had an ergogenic effects as did calcium for cyclists.
Diet in military – Pasiakos presentation
Take protein for your training phase, not for your training type. .8-1.6g//kg when at rest 1.5-2.0g/kg when doing maneuvers, post training aim to take in 20-25g or .25-.3g/kg body mass for recovery.
MREs are packaged to have 1,300 calories each and 48 grams of protein. They need to be shelf stable for 9 months in the heat.
When the special operation people are on maneuvers they can spend over 7,000kcals per day in the field. They are constantly running a caloric deficit. The warfighters tend to not have as great of food availability as they would need to keep the weight on, but these operations can last 1-7days, where they are moving for 20hrs per day. Their appetite is suppressed, they aren’t sleeping much, and they tend to become hypo gonadal (low testosterone) from doing this. At the end of ranger school some guys have a free test level of 70-100mg/dl of testosterone (this is pre puberty male levels). There is also a decrease in firing accuracy after these long days.
Participants in SEER school lost 5.8kg of body weight (7% body mass) and 3.1kg of lean mass. With a 40% caloric deficit, people last just a bit less than half of lean mass over 3 weeks. The goal for protein intake might be 2.3g/kg for this amount of volume of work (tipton et al reference). Post exercise aim for 40g of protein to enhance recovery as fast as possible (Willard). Also total body training seems to get better protein results from 40g of protein then 20g (McNaughton 2016). The higher protein intake lowers total body protein breakdown.
A new way to look at protein digestion and availability is by the digestive amino acid score (DIAAS) – this leads to the leucine threshold (how much leucine you need to fully enhance protein synthesis in the muscle.
The combat rations and amino acid profile aims to get in at least 12% leucine. Trying to make sure that the warfighters make time for food since deficits of 40-60% can occur.
However Magnolis et al found that the warfighters threw out 1,500 calories of the MRE (food they didn’t like), where in a massive negative protein balance, and lost lean body mass. They were then given protein bars and found that they ate the bars but just threw out more of the food from the MRE.
Energy intake and protein balance are the biggest factors.
Warfighters have more energy expenditure and carb needs when at altitude. Also get sick and tend to decrease lean body mass and performance when working at altitude for long periods of time. In a study at altitude over 41 days the participants lost 8kg. there was no different in taking in 1g-2g/kg of protein per day in lean body mass, but they did see a difference in that individuals with better aerobic fitness lost less lean body mass and this wasn’t related to starting lean body mass. (even the mTOR response was lower in the individuals with chronic lean body mass loss at altitude).
With this population they just can’t eat more, trying to make better rations and a more targeted approach can help. Overall the most important factor is energy balance with the bigger crash leading to greater lean body mass loss. They haven’t done many investigations with creatine, omega 3 fatty acids, and so on (so far).
Nitrates and health presentation
Nitrates lead to greater NO (nitric oxide) in the heart and not so much in the liver, but enough in one area can increase plasma levels which in turn has hermetic effects.
Lightning helps fix nitrogen in the soil and this goes in to plants which we in turn eat.
The human nitrogen cycle – eat it> swallow it > stomach activates it > absorbed in intestine > has effect on vasodilation in the body.
50% or more of NO determined by the diet, in your microbiome. Green leafy vegetables best choice.
300-400mg need to see improvement in blood pressure or exercise. Avg. American only consumes about 150mg. in order to have this effect need more leafy greens. Different social conditions throughout the country. Some foods have 4-5x less nitrogen composition and organic foods are often lower than normal produce since the nitrogen fertilizers aren’t used as much. We need bacteria in our body to break this down.
Human genome is made up of about 23,000 genes.
Bacteria in the mouth effects the NO production in the mouth. If you eradicate oral bacteria through mouthwashes there was an observed increase in blood pressure in some participants (1 of them went up by 28mmhg). There are certain bacterial strains that are related to BP and we need enough. More nitrates help with avoiding inflammation and clotting in the arteries. Nitrates are also related to visceral adiposity levels. NO can increase glucose sensitivity by increasing GLUT 4 receptor sensitivity. Increase NO when at altitude.
Dialysis machines remove nitrates and nitrites from the blood which might be a cause for why folks on dialysis are more likely to have heart attacks and strokes.
Breast milk is high in nitrite. The more you know.
Aim to get in .25mg/Kg nitrites each day (maybe). Avoid mouth wash and tongue cleaning (or at least stupid amounts of mouthwash and tongue cleaning).
NO lozenges are very effective as vasodilators. Cause an increase of dilation by 13% and increase blood flow 34% after half an hour.
Also protein pump inhibitors lead to increased heart attack risk since this shuts down endogenous NO production.
NO (and the precursors) needs to be classified as a vitamin due to all of the positive health effects.
All beet products not the same, nitrate and nitrite levels vary in the products. Liquid NO products never work here and more is not necessarily better in this area.
All truth passes through three stages:
1st it is ridiculed
2nd it is violently opposed
3rd it is accepted as being self evident
- Arthur Schopenhauer – German Philosopher
30-40% of people can’t convert nitrates well. Feed the body nitrates before training for better recovery.
Phosphatidic Acid (PA) supplementation presentation
PA directly effects mTOR activation in the muscle.
Might be useful to help people on bedrest with muscle wasting. Pa helps with muscle development and repair. The mediator PA version might be more readily absorbable. Hoffman 2013 found that on a monitored training program 750mg of PA per day had greater LBM changes at the end of the study than the control group. Wilson et al also found some significance.
Timing of PA doesn’t seem to be that important, but peaks in the blood 2-3 hours after intake and then seems to be in the blood for about 7 hours (more of Wilson’s work here). The supplement here doesn’t seem to be that impressive.
60% of people are looking for a good alternative to caffeine for energy (god forbid the folks find a way to sleep more).
6-8 grams of citrulline malate possibly helps with muscle protein synthesis. Seems to have a great effect when taken with glutathione (10:1 ratio here).
Keto adapted endurance athletes have nearly the same glycogen stores and exercise response as normal athletes. However, there weeks of keto for race walkers didn’t have any positive effects on their performance. Low carb also doesn’t seem to bolster maximal aerobic performance, and the best aerobic athletes tend to take in 60% or more of their daily calories in the form of carbs.
Train low (with less carbs) might work, but do 2 sessions a day w/ no carbs after the 1st session so you are glycogen depleted for the 2nd. This causes better adaptations in the muscle, but didn’t seem to have a great effect on performance when compared to a control session.
Ostraine works and seems to increase LBM and decrease BF after 4 weeks with no major side effects, but this is now incredibly hard to get.
Can there be too much PRO in diet from high intensity exercise? Maybe from acid/base balance, but supplementation can’t recover the difference.
Acute carb intake 30-60g of CHO/hr
Ultra endurance athletes aim for 90g of CHO/hr
Really only care about glycogen levels in sport activities that last longer than 90 minutes.
High protein and low carb is not the way to work with most aerobic athletes.
2g of citrulline with .2g of glutathione seems to be the adequate dosage to go with for enhancing an anabolic effect of training.
Data blitz – This was interesting, each researcher was given 1 minute to give the short version of their research. A buzzer was used when people when over so this got intense real quick which was neat to say the least.
Antonio – 3.2g/kg or 4.8g/kg in two separate women and their bone mineral density was checked after a few months and no changes in bone mineral density.
Willoughby – elevation masks when wearing it you have a decrease in performance but no hormone or gene expression changes compared to control.
Von Dusseldorp- .22g/kg BCAA (branch chain amino acids) had no effect on muscle performance, but did help with soreness.
Andreas – protein before bed and after waking up led to better lean body mass changes over time.
Walker – soccer women low in iron and vitamin D levels over the season.
Arent – teacrine supplementation and caffeine and supplementation had no significant effects.
Campbell – no difference from supplementation from the different types of whey protein for supplementation.
Ziegenfuss – sensoril ashwagnda might have a positive effect in power athletes
Primavie – in cross training might have effects.
Kaumann – high protein in MMA- whey vs. rice no big effects on body comp and BF%.
Peacock – higher bone mineral density in mma athletes compared to other athletes.
Schonefield – mind muscle connect – more muscle growth than just lifting weight (really controlling and feeling the load when lifting weights).
7.1g/kg protein in one guy and no negative kidney function effects with this intake.
Total protein seems more important, but protein quality of the food does matter.
Kerksick – 6.4g/day of beta alanine in rugby athletes helped with power and sprinting
Body comp in athletes is important, bod pod has best agreement followed by DEXA and then ultrasound by way of error.
Gonzalez – citrulline dosed at 8g 40 minutes beforehand had no acute BP effects.
Escalante – steroid users have less anger after cycling than they did before their cycle.
BCAA metabolism matters how you train.
Contreras – upper glutes have best activation with hip thrust where bands around the knee. Followed by frog stance and then max contract.
Heavy load hip thrust is not the best method for activation here.
Caffeine sensitivity and genes have an effect of handgrip, but not much of one.
Sexual function related to body composition, aerobic performance related to arousal. Likability is more important.
And that is a wrap on day two. The big take homes here is just about everyone should be on creatine and get in enough nitrates. So eat your dang vegetables and red meat. After that there are a few interesting points or decent gems weaved in.